John Stuart Mill’s claim--that even as late as 1871 the First Industrial Revolution had not yet really begun to matter very much--will probably strike you as surprising, even bizarre, especially if you have taken a course in economic or technological history. Was not the steam engine invented by Thomas Newcomen in 1712? Was not the spinning jenny invented by Thomas Hargreaves in 1764? Was not the first cotton mill built in 1771? Was not the thirty-five mile Liverpool and Manchester Railroad opened in Britain on September 15, 1830? And was not that the day on which William Huskisson M.P. (1770-1830), President of the Board of Trade (the equivalent in the United Kingdom of the Secretary of Commerce) became the first human killed in a railway accident—runover by a non-runaway train? Were there not 20,000 miles of railroads worldwide by 1850? Were there not 25,000 miles of telegraph wires in the United States alone by 1850?