Democracy Must Be Irresponsible: So Responsible Governance Must Be Undemocratic
When is responsible democratic governance possible? Our classical predecessors would have given a simple answer: never.
Democracy Must Be Irresponsible: So Responsible Governance Must Be Undemocratic
When is responsible democratic governance possible? Our classical predecessors would have given a simple answer: never.
Thoukydides: The Mytilene Debate (427 B.C.): "The Athenians... in the fury of the moment determined to put to death not only the [Mytilenean] prisoners at Athens, but the whole adult male population of Mitylene, and to make slaves of the women and children...
Good Riddance to Fidel Castro!: Fidel Castro has retired. Good riddance!!
That the Lenin-Trotsky-Stalin Authoritarian Project of which Fidel Castro was the next-to-last exemplar was not an advance toward but a retreat from a better world was obvious long, long ago. Quite early--Kronstadt?--it was clear to all save the dead-enders that the project was a mistake.
As Rosa Luxemburg wrote in "The Russian Revolution":
November 26, 2016 at 06:32 AM in Economics: Growth, Economics: History, Economics: Inequality, History, Moral Responsibility, Philosophy: Moral, Political Economy, Politics, Streams: (Tuesday) Hoisted from Archives, Streams: Cycle, Streams: Economics, Streams: Equitable Growth | Permalink | Comments (5)
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Ana Navarro: @ananavarro: "Why Miami celebrating? Ppl like my friend, Claudia Puig. Her dad killed by a Castro firing squad. Her uncle was a political prisoner 25 yrs."
Sean Carroll: @seanmcarroll: “'Universal health care' and 'other countries were worse' don’t make Castro worth celebrating. Repressive dictatorships are bad."
Adrian Monck: @amonck: "Channelling Public Enemy on Elvis:"
Stefan Leifert: @StefanLeifert: "Jean-Claude Juncker: 'With the death of Fidel Castro, the world has lost a man who was a hero for many'."
For all of our stooges searching for a Stalin, half-wits hailing a Hitler, morons marching for a Mussolini, and clowns craving a Castro this morning:
Jaybird: Vladimir, Joseph, and Zedong:
Has anybody here seen my old friend Vladimir?
Can you tell me where he’s gone?
He freed a lot of people,
But it seems the good they die young.
You know, I just looked around and he’s gone.
AP: Fidel Castro Dead at 90: "HAVANA (AP) — Cuban President Raul Castro has announced the death of his brother Fidel Castro on Cuban state media. Fidel Castro was 90 years old..."
Some teabaggers like Augusto Pinochet. Some herbal teabagger liked Fidel Castro. Peas in a pod:
Alexander Hamilton: The Federalist Papers: No. 9: "To the People of the State of New York:
A FIRM Union will be of the utmost moment to the peace and liberty of the States, as a barrier against domestic faction and insurrection. It is impossible to read the history of the petty republics of Greece and Italy without feeling sensations of horror and disgust at the distractions with which they were continually agitated, and at the rapid succession of revolutions by which they were kept in a state of perpetual vibration between the extremes of tyranny and anarchy.
Note to Self: Was it Mary Beard who said that, much as she loved to read Tacitus and Suetonius, it was implausible that all the good emperors were those who died in their beds and were followed by their chosen successors no matter how many senators they had killed or poets they had exiled, while all the bad emperors were those who had been assassinated? Were no good emperors ever assassinated? Did no bad emperors ever die in their beds? Thus she tends toward structural rather than accident- or personality-based history...
Filling: 2 cups pumpkin, 1 cup sugar, 2 cups heavy cream, 4 large eggs (2 oz. each: 1 cup total), 2 teaspoons cinnamon, 1 teaspoon ginger, 1/2 teaspoon nutmeg, 1 pinch clove...
Crust: 1 3/4 cups flour, 5 oz. butter, 2 oz. shortening, 1 egg yolk, 3 tablespoons sugar, 2 teaspoons orange zest, 2 teaspoons lemon zest...
Whipped Cream: to taste...
Hoisted from the Archives: 470 years ago, in 1543, King Henry VIII Tudor of England married his sixth and last wife, Katherine Parr. He also:
A busy king, for one so sick and mad.
There are, broadly speaking, three kinds of American patriotism. There is Kentucky, which is the standard ethno-linguistic nationalism of soil and blood (think: age of Andrew Jackson). There is Virginia, which is a peculiar form of libertarianism-of-adoption: "we" have come here so that nobody else can boss "us" or those we adopt to become "us" around (think: Thomas Jefferson). And there is New England, which is the utopian nationalism of election: those who elect to come here and help "us" to build utopia are "us", and are very welcome as long as they commit to building the City Upon a Hill.
To no one's surprise, I like the third kind. And here is its root, in John Winthrop's Arabella Sermon:
John Winthrop: From "A Model of Christian Charity": "We are entered into covenant with Him for this work...
The best thing I have seen on the mess that America has now gotten itself into:
Luigi Zingales: The Right Way to Resist Trump: Five years ago, I warned about the risk of a Donald J. Trump presidency. Most people laughed...
They thought it inconceivable. I was not particularly prescient; I come from Italy, and I had already seen this movie, starring Silvio Berlusconi, who led the Italian government as prime minister for a total of nine years between 1994 and 2011. I knew how it could unfold.
When I was working in the Treasury in 1993-5, I was struck by how much it was the case that President Bill Clinton was still the ex-Governor of Arkansas. Thus arguments that would have been powerful and important when directed at a Governor of Arkansas still resonated in his mind. Moreover, it seemed to me that they resonated much more strongly than they perhaps should have, given that he was now not Governor of Arkansas but President of the United States, if they were evaluated purely on technocratic grounds.
Diane Coyle: The Trade-Investment-Service-Intellectual Property Nexus: "I’ve managed to resist reviewing Richard Baldwin’s new book The Great Convergence: information technology, trade and the new globalization until now...
Alexander Hamilton (1778): Federalist No 68: "Nothing was more to be desired than that every practicable obstacle should be opposed to cabal, intrigue, and corruption...
Neville Morley: Vicarious Virtue: "The seminar text for my Roman History course over the last fortnight has been the opening of the third book of Varro’s Rerum Rusticarum...
Let me distinguish between:
Supervulgar Trumpism: Donald Trump will return manufacturing employment to 24% of the nonfarm labor force.
Vulgar Trumpism: Donald Trump will renegotiate NAFTA and China's accession to the WTO. We will not get all or even most of the manufacturing jobs back, but the industries and the communities will be healthy.
Semi-intelligent Trumpism: The U.S. ought to be a high savings capital and manufactures exporting country, like Germany and Japan. Bad macro and trade policies--the Reagan and Bush 43 deficits, keeping the strong dollar policy long past its sell-by date, prioritizing finance over manufacturing--accelerated the decline of manufacturing employment well beyond its proper technology driven pace and eroded our valuable communities of engineering practice.
Note to Self: Why Donald Trump's attempt to make trade policy his arena for rescuing America's white want-to-be-blue-collar workers will fail:
Brad DeLong started by alluding to Indian philosophy. I will start with Chinese: The philosopher says: 'When the wise man points at the moon, the fool looks at the finger'. Market capitalism is the moon. Globalization is the finger...
Whether you think the problem with market capitalism is income stagnation coupled with in adequate social insurance on the one hand, or a Polanyian disruption of expected life paths and chances on the other, Pascal Lamy is right in saying that it is a problem with market capitalism, not with trade and globalization.
Weekend Reading: The problem with this from the extremely smart and thoughtful Izabella Kaminska's argument here is that people pay for the New York Times--and they got Judy Miller, Whitewater!, and Emails!. People pay for the Washinton Post, and get Fred Hiatt--plus get told that Stanley Kaplan University is wonderful, and that Clarice Starling and Eliot Ness established the high reputation of the FBI. In pay-for journalism you may be the customer rather than the product, but that does not get you far enough:
Izabella Kaminska: Facebook and the manufacture of consent: "As to... what’s really wrong with the media, the simple adage that you get what you pay for and that if it’s free you are the product is... insightful...
...If you pay peanuts, you will get poorly balanced, poorly verified, poorly sourced and poorly scrutinised news. And if you condone the mass distribution of free news and normalise it by calling it a “business model” or an “eco-system” you will fan the propaganda war rather than abate it. Don’t make Facebook and Google filter fake news. If you value truly balanced and verified news; if you value comment which scrutinises vested interests, business models or government policy; or if you value being confronted by views which are different from your own but still well argued, pay for the news, don’t just get it from Facebook....
Benedict Anderson's (1983) Imagined Communities is a great book--but great at posing the problem of why political action and agency went to the ethno-linguistic nation and not to the class, not great at finding a solution to the problem...
**Ernest Gellner's also 1983 Nations and Nationalism is a much better place to start...
Ken Rogoff: "In nine years, nobody will be talking about 'secular stagnation'. I've been debating Larry on this for a year, and I started saying 'in ten years..., and so for consistency I now say 'in nine years...".
This is a wager that the full-employment long-run in which money and its associates are a veil that does not affect or disturb the Say's Law operation of the economy will come not more than 18 years after the shock of 2017--or at least that whatever remnants of the effects of that shock on the business cycle come 2025 will be dwarfed the effects of other business cycle shocks subsequent to now.
I do know from experience that one disagrees with Ken Rogoff at one's grave intellectual peril. But is he correct here? I really cannot follow him to the conclusion he wants me to reach...
Things to reread and chew over:
Whether Thomas Jefferson's vision of the future of America was coherent was unclear then and remains unclear now.
Jefferson, like most of his founding-father contemporaries, was steeped in one version of classical history: Roman history as a morality play. Jefferson and many, many of his revolutionary peers assumed that yeoman farmers--Cincinnati--were the only possible social class that could maintain a free republic. They all believed that Rome was a great, free Republic because of its fiercely-independent farmers who nevertheless loved their city and would--like Cincinnatus--drop their ploughs and instantly take up their swords to defend (and conquer), and then return to their ploughs after the war was over.
November 14, 2016 at 11:34 PM in Economics: Growth, Economics: History, History, Moral Responsibility, Philosophy: Moral, Political Economy, Politics, Streams: (Wednesday) Economic History, Streams: Cycle, Streams: Economics, Streams: Equitable Growth, Streams: Highlighted | Permalink | Comments (31)
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Must-Read: I would add Mongkut and Chulalongkorn in Thailand, and Mohammed Ali in Egypt, to Pseudoerasmus's list here...
In a good world, this would be not a blogpost but a symposium. This would be a conference. Admittedly, since Pseudoerasmus is and probably must remain anonymous, he/she would have to teleconference in her/his disguised-voice avatar:
Pseudoerasmus: State Capacity & the Sino-Japanese Divergence: "Why China did not industrialise before Western Europe may be a tantalising and irresistible subject, but frankly it’s a parlour game...
...What remains underexplored, however, is the more tractable issue of why Japan managed, but China failed, to initiate an early transition to modern growth and convergence with the West. A recent paper argues that the gap in state capacity between Qing China and Tokugawa Japan was responsible for the divergence.
Please note, this blogpost disputes that argument:
Joachim Voth: Differences and Similarities: Trump and Hitler: "Here is my attempt to think through the troubling parallels with 1933...
...Trump is no Hitler, and history doesn't repeat itself.... [But] this is my small checklist of things that look, broadly speaking, similar - and those that do not:
Must-Read: The divide between Democrats and Republicans in the United States in 2016 is best conceptualized as a divide between those who think that an America in which black, brown, yellow, red, etc. people vote is great and in which they have a great deal to gain and those who think that an America in which black, brown, yellow, red, etc. people vote is no longer great and in which they have something--maybe not a great deal, but something--to lose:
Francis Wilkinson: [Race, Not Class, Dictates Republican Future]: "The class compositions of the Republican and Democratic parties keep evolving...
Stephen Cohen and J. Bradford DeLong (2016): Concrete Economics: The Hamilton Approach to Economic Policy (Cambridge: Harvard University Press) http://amzn.to/2fJnSEe | Keynote
As of now, an estimated 2.2 million vote edge for Hillary Clinton...
And that's without adding in the effects of 2nd Jim Crow voter suppression...
The big stories of last Tuesday are two:
Big Story: Hillary Rodham Clinton won the vote--more Americans chose her for their leader than chose Donald Trump.
Big Story: The electoral college failed to do its proper democratic job for the sixth time in 58 elections--and a 10.6% failure rate is much too high.
Anybody who does not focus on those two big stories is not being your friend.
Must-Read: Philip Stephens: America Can Survive Trump. Not so the West: "History can veer off course... in 1914... the first age of globalisation was consumed in the flames of the Great War... [in] the 1930s when economic hardship, protectionism and nationalism nurtured the rise of fascism...
Must-Read: As I said yesterday, President-elect Trump is probably a Schwarzenegger--in which case the next four years will see for the most part a loss of opportunity to make America greater, which is a disappointment but not a total disaster. Trump is perhaps a Berlusconi--which would be a disaster: think of the damage Berlusconi's bunga-bunga rent-seeking rule did to Italy. And Trump is highly unlikely to be a Mussolini.
But there are Mussolinis out there, and worse. And, as Ezra Klein notes, the rise of Trump reveals that our political system is frighteningly vulnerable to them:
Ezra Klein: Donald Trump’s Success Reveals a Frightening Weakness in American Democracy: "The belief that Trump is a predictable reaction to acute economic duress crumbled before the finding that his primary voters had a median household income of $72,000 — well above both the national average and that of Clinton supporters...
Must-Read: This by Josh Barro was, I think, the best take on what the 2016 presidential election was really about: telling it like it is. I do, however, have several caveats:
Josh Barro's analysis is correct only for high-information Trump voters. For low-information Trump voters, the calculus is: "Gee, there's more of an uproar in the media about this election! Maybe it's because of social changes produced by the internet? Whatever, I'm a Republican, and the Republican convention nominated Trump, and the Republican establishment says to vote for Trump. So I will vote for Trump." Things aren't as dire about all--or most--of those of our fellow citizens who pull the lever for Trump as Barro believes. There is a weak duty not to be a low-information voter, but not a strong duty not to be one.
A great many high-information voters who usually vote Republican are not voting for Trump. That is, I think, a good sign.
Where the news is much worse than Barro says is with respect to the Republican establishment that has fallen in line behind Trump. That is a very worrisome problem for the future, whatever the next four years bring us.
Josh Barro: Final Thoughts on 2016: "The core question of the 2016 election is stupidly simple...
Must-Read: If "fascist" means anything, it means somebody who claims to be a strong leader who will (a) solve problems, (b) eliminate the cretinism of parliaments, and (c) identify the enemies of the people--internal and external--and deal with them harshly. If you want to say that "fascism" proper is a disease of the twentieth century, and that the twenty-first century has "neo-fascism", I will not complain:
Gideon Rachman: Is Donald Trump a Fascist?: "Labeling a politician a fascist is not usually helpful...
Well, that was an interesting election night...
Back in 2000 we had a chance to establish the principle in the running code of our constitution (as opposed to the specifications document) that electors switch so that the winner of the national popular vote becomes president. In fact, back in late October 2000 I was pushing that: I argued that if Al Gore won the electoral college but not the popular vote, he should direct his electors to vote for George W. Bush because the long run stakes at risk were too high for it to be wise to do otherwise.
We did not do that in 2000--to our great cost then, and perhaps to our greater cost now.
I'm going to call this debate--from six and four years ago--for me. I do think I was right then. But even were I to concede that I was not right then about what "economics" was in its essence, I believe I can convincingly make the case that I am correct now:
November 07, 2016 at 01:11 PM in Economics: History, History, Long Form, Philosophy: Moral, Political Economy, Politics, Streams: (BiWeekly) Honest Broker, Streams: (Tuesday) Hoisted from Archives, Streams: Cycle, Streams: Economics, Streams: Equitable Growth, Streams: Highlighted | Permalink | Comments (3)
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Here I believe Noah Smith is incomplete when he claims:
Everyone is born with an endowment of Asskickery. The state monopoly on the use of force is simply a government redistribution of Asskickery. Libertarians, of course, should realize this.
The state monopoly on the use of force is not just a redistribution of the endowment of Asskickery. It is also a revelation of who has how much of it. When the amount of Asskickery with which individuals are endowed is hidden, the requirements of the Coase Theorem are not met, and so bargaining costs keep the economy from attaining a Pareto optimum.
For example, in twelfth-century Ireland, the distribution of Asskickery among Richard "Strongbow" de Clare, Diarmait Mac Murchada, and Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair was uncertain. Richard and Diarmait could reduce their bargaining costs to zero by aligning their interests via the marriage of Diarmait's daughter Aoife to Richard (shown below). But there remained the bargaining costs between Richard and Diarmait on the one hand and Ruaidrí on the other (also shown below), which were very large and very dissipative indeed. Not a Pareto-optimal outcome in the least:
Curiously enough, if you websurf to the National Gallery of Ireland, its website focus on only a small portion of "The Marriage of Strongbow and Aoife":
Must-Read: Noah Smith: Cosma Shalizi Argues That Adam Smith Is Not a Real Economist Edition: "Everyone is born with an endowment of Asskickery...
...The state monopoly on the use of force is simply a government redistribution of Asskickery. Libertarians, of course, should realize this.
Let us dispel with the fiction that today's Republican Party, with a primary-voting base that can nominate a Trump, and an establishment of office holders, donors, and apparatchiks that can fall in line behind him, is not an existential threat to America:
Brendan Nyhan: @BrendanNyhan: "Trump's pivot wasn't to the center...
...but to a new divide in American politics that would fundamentally change the party system if Republicans adopt it. Reminder: Not a word of this is conservative. Trying to shift axis of conflict to cosmopolitanism vs. race-inflected version of nationalism:
There is no silver lining from Donald Trump's winning the Republican primaries, or for 99% of the Republican Party's falling in line behind them. (Live from the Republicans' Self-Made Trump Hell)
If there were to be a silver lining, it is in the painful education it is providing--it is now impossible for Jews and Mormons to pretend that Republicans see them as "normal" people:
Kevin Cohen: @DudeMarmite:
Calling someone out for being a Jew ?— kevin cohen (@DudeMarmite) November 4, 2016
Unreal . https://t.co/Evti1pMsqS
Donald J. Trump: @realDonaldTrump:
I promise you that I'm much smarter than Jonathan Leibowitz - I mean Jon Stewart @TheDailyShow. Who, by the way, is totally overrated.— Donald J. Trump (@realDonaldTrump) April 24, 2013
The divide between Democrats and Republicans in the United States in 2016 is best conceptualized as a divide between those who think that an America in which black, brown, yellow, red, etc. people vote is great, and a place in which they have a great deal to gain; and those who think that an America in which black, brown, yellow, red, etc. people vote is no longer great, and is a place in which they have something--maybe not a great deal if they do not have much, but something--to lose.
Let me start with the very sharp Francis Wilkinson's argument that the ressentiment driving the Republican Party today is not class-based--is not the result of the economic disappointments and difficulties suffered by the white working class over the past generation--but rather extends all the way up the income ladder:
Matthew Yglesias: @mattyglesias: "I think one driver of different views on the "economic anxiety" meme is how much of this stuff you get on a daily basis:
October 30, 2016 at 10:01 AM in Economics: History, History, Long Form, Moral Responsibility, Obama Administration, Philosophy: Moral, Political Economy, Politics, Streams: (BiWeekly) Honest Broker, Streams: (Tuesday) Hoisted from Archives, Streams: Across the Wide Missouri, Streams: Cycle, Streams: Economics, Streams: Equitable Growth, Streams: Highlighted | Permalink | Comments (12)
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William H. Janeway and Raj Kushwaha: Enterprise Software: Death and Transfiguration: "Once upon a time — and it was a time that lasted some thirty years...
October 29, 2016 at 05:30 AM in Economics: History, Economics: Inequality, Economics: Macro, History, Long Form, Moral Responsibility, Philosophy: Moral, Political Economy, Politics, Streams: (BiWeekly) Honest Broker, Streams: Cycle, Streams: Economics, Streams: Equitable Growth, Streams: Highlighted | Permalink | Comments (9)
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Must-Read: In my view, the conservative intellectual crisis is the fact that David Brooks can write--and the New York Times publish--this piece on the conservative intellectual crisis. The only mention of race comes at the end, where Brooks writes that "most young conservatives are comfortable with ethnic diversity and are weary of the Fox News media-politico complex."
There is no acknowledgement that for David Brooks's bosses at the Wall Street Journal, National Review, and the Washington Times, income stagnation for America's middle- and working-classes was a large part of the point. One of America's biggest problems, according to Bill Buckley, Irving Kristol, James Q. Wilson, Russell Kirk, Midge Decter, and company, was that lucky duckies were mooching off of the wealth created by the talented. The idea was to redistribute income upward by destroying the lucky duckies' claims to income: redistributive taxes, unions, high-quality low-cost public higher education, welfare--and then on to cutting back unemployment insurance, Social Security, and Medicare.
But how then did the conservatives of the 1980s and 1990s think that they could wield power? One road was specious claims of the benefits of supply-side tax cuts, repeated often enough to gain credibility via a complaisant press. The second road was via those whom Brooks calls the "sort of cheesy" Republicans: those like Lee Atwater, Karl Rove, and company, who offered the (white, male) lucky duckies the full menu headed by racial supremacy and misogyny: keep the Negroes, the feminizes, the illegals, and the abortionists in their place.
Yes. David Brooks in the 1980s and 1990s writing for his mendacious little magazines and editorial pages was a lucky ducky indeed: it was "good to be a young conservative"then:
David Brooks: The Conservative Intellectual Crisis: "I feel very lucky to have entered the conservative movement... in the 1980s and 1990s... National Review, The Washington Times, The Wall Street Journal’s editorial page...
The roots of growth: Brad DeLong examines a study that places the origins of the Industrial Revolution in fifteenth-century Europe.
A Culture of Growth: The Origins of the Modern Economy
Joel Mokyr Princeton University Press: 2016.
What is modern economic growth? Going by the best available measure (it might be more honest to say 'guess'), today's average material living standards and economic productivity levels are some 20 times what they were in the agricultural era (about 6000 BC to AD 1500). And the efficiency with which humanity uses technology and organization to transform resources into useful commodities is currently growing at 2% per year — perhaps 100 times the rate common before the Industrial Revolution... Read MOAR at Nature
Mitt Romney and "Those People": Reading Ta-Nehisi Coates Weblogging: Ta-Nehisi Coates:
No One Left To Race-Bait To: Dave Weigel points out the difference between the covert racism of a young cagey Pat Buchanan in the days of the Southern strategy, and overt racism of the pariah Pat Buchanan banished to Fox News…. Calling the first black president a "drug dealer of welfare" is… Buchanan deploying symbolism. The problem is that the world has changed, and this is precisely the kind of rhetoric that would end a presidential candidacy today.
October 27, 2016 at 07:32 AM in Economics: History, Economics: Inequality, History, Moral Responsibility, Obama Administration, Political Economy, Politics, Streams: (Tuesday) Hoisted from Archives, Streams: Across the Wide Missouri, Streams: Cycle, Streams: Economics, Streams: Equitable Growth, Streams: Highlighted | Permalink | Comments (0)
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The appearance of "Niall Ferguson" in my inbox stream as the posts from October 2012 flow across reminds me that I have a very serious point here that has not gotten sufficient attention.
To some degree this is my fault:
So let me try again. It is, I think, an important story.
It involves more than just a (flawed and failed) attempt by Niall Ferguson to feed tainted red bigotry meat to a California audience he did not understand.
It also involves bad-faith intellectual debate and intellectual history from von Hayek and Schumpeter, who thought it a good use of their time to misrepresent and slander a recently-dead man who was a greater economist than either of them could ever hope to be.
And it involves Gertrude Himmelfarb. I am not sure whether Gertrude Himmelfarb was simply misled here by trusting Schumpeter and his History of Economic Analysis as an authority on technical economic areas that she could not follow, or whether she is also a bad intellectual historian actor here. She certainly cuts off Keynes's "Puritan fallacy" quote at a very suspicious place if it is the first...
October 24, 2016 at 02:46 PM in Economics: History, Economics: Macro, History, Long Form, Moral Responsibility, Philosophy: Moral, Political Economy, Politics, Streams: (BiWeekly) Honest Broker, Streams: (Tuesday) Hoisted from Archives, Streams: Across the Wide Missouri, Streams: Cycle, Streams: Economics, Streams: Equitable Growth, Streams: Highlighted | Permalink | Comments (5)
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Must-Read: Philip T. Hoffman: Why Was It Europeans Who Conquered the World?: "By the eighteenth century, Europeans dominated the military technology of gunpowder weapons...
...which had enormous advantages for fighting war at a distance and conquering other parts of the world. Their dominance, however, was surprising, because the technology had originated in China and been used with expertise in Asia and the Middle East. To account for their prowess with gunpowder weapons, historians have often invoked competition, but it cannot explain why they pushed this technology further than anyone else. The answer lies in the peculiar form that military competition took in western Europe: it was a winner take all tournament, and a simple model of the tournament shows why it led European rulers to spend heavily on the gunpowder technology, why the technology was advanced as a result, and why political incentives and military conditions made the rest of Eurasia fall behind.
"I now know it is a rising, not a setting, sun" --Benjamin Franklin, 1787