Eleanor Roosevelt: My Day:
NEW YORK, Wednesday—Two of the women who went over to Paris for the International Labor Organization meeting are back in this country. Congresswoman Mary T. Norton got home a short time ago, but unfortunately Paris after this war seems to be as dangerous for civilians as it was after the last war. At that time almost everyone picked up some kind of germ, and Mrs. Norton seems to have done the same thing this time. Of course, we house and feed our people over there, but Mrs. Norton's illness points up a fact we should remember—namely, that all our efforts at isolation never really isolate us. If the greater part of the population is hungry and cold, disease will spread and the well-fed and well-housed people will suffer along with the others.
Eleanor Roosevelt: My Day :
NEW YORK, Tuesday—The press this morning reports that Dr. Morris Fishbein, editor of the American Medical Association Journal, has called President Truman's plan for a national health program 'socialized medicine' at its worst. So the American Medical Association will oppose this plan and, I imagine, any other which would really help the nation to have better and more widespread medical care.
"On Nov. 27, 1945, General George C. Marshall was named special U.S. envoy to China by President Harry S. Truman to try to end hostilities between the Nationalists and the Communists."
Fernando Ortiz de Urbina: Easy does it: November 26, 1945 at Savoy Records:
Monday, November 26, 1945. Just another day at the office for the small independent Savoy Records label from New Jersey. There's so much written about the music recorded on that day for that label, that I'll just stick to hard data. First on, Don Byas and his quintet.
Abraham Pais: Subtle Is the Lord:
Section V of Einstein’s 1907 review article... begins the long road from the special theory to the general theory of relativity. Let us follow him on that road, marked by trials, by errors, and by long pauses, until finally, on November 25, 1915, the structure of the general theory as we now know it lay before him.... His first important paper on relativity theory after 1905 is the 1907 review... written at the request of Stark, the editor of the Jahrbuch....
Robert F. Burns: Letter](http://www.robertfburns.com/Letter1945November23.html):
November 23, 1945
Well, we had an all-out Thanksgiving Dinner yesterday. Actually it was supper for that was when most of the students would be there.
Eleanor Roosevelt: My Day:
Wednesday—In the hearts of many people this Thanksgiving Day there will be a deep and fervent sense of thankfulness. The war is at an end, and many boys and men who were in constant danger are home again with their families.
Robert H. Jackson: Opening Statement before the International Military Tribunal:
May it please Your Honors:
The privilege of opening the first trial in history for crimes against the peace of the world imposes a grave responsibility. The wrongs which we seek to condemn and punish have been so calculated, so malignant, and so devastating, that civilization cannot tolerate their being ignored, because it cannot survive their being repeated. That four great nations, flushed with victory and stung with injury stay the hand of vengeance and voluntarily submit their captive enemies to the judgment of the law is one of the most significant tributes that Power has ever paid to Reason.
History.com: Nuremberg Trials Begin:
Twenty-four high-ranking Nazis go on trial in Nuremberg, Germany, for atrocities committed during World War II.
Wikipedia: Joe Hill:
Joe Hill, born Joel Emmanuel Hägglund in Gävle, Sweden, and also known as Joseph Hillström (October 7, 1879 – November 19, 1915) was a Swedish-American labor activist, songwriter, and member of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW, also known as the "Wobblies"). A native Swedish speaker, he learned English during the early 1900s, while working various jobs from New York to San Francisco. Hill, an immigrant worker frequently facing unemployment and underemployment, became a popular songwriter and cartoonist for the radical union. His most famous songs include "The Preacher and the Slave" (in which he created the phrase "pie in the sky"), "The Tramp", "There is Power in a Union", "The Rebel Girl", and "Casey Jones—the Union Scab"....
By this time using the name Joe or Joseph Hillstrom (possibly because of anti-union blacklisting), he joined the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) or Wobblies around 1910, when working on the docks in San Pedro, California. In late 1910 he wrote a letter to the IWW newspaper Industrial Worker, identifying himself as a member of the IWW local chapter in Portland, Oregon....
William Pitt: Speech on the Proposed Address to the Throne:
I RISE, my Lords, to declare my sentiments on this most solemn and serious subject. It has imposed a load upon my mind, which, I fear, nothing can remove, but which impels me to endeavor its alleviation, by a free and unreserved communication of my sentiments.
Eleanor Roosevelt: My Day, November 17, 1945:
CHICAGO, Friday—In a recent issue of a national publication there appear these words:
As we Americans have been told so often, millions of people face what may become the worst winter in the history of human suffering. The instrument we think will save them is UNRRA, but it won't. In fact, it is so far from adequate that we had best junk it and start anew.
The United States ships 88 German scientists to America to assist the nation in its production of rocket technology. Most of these men had served under the Nazi regime and critics in the United States questioned the morality of placing them in the service of America. Nevertheless, the U.S. government, desperate to acquire the scientific know-how that had produced the terrifying and destructive V-1 and V-2 rockets for Germany during WWII, and fearful that the Russians were also utilizing captured German scientists for the same end, welcomed the men with open arms.
History.com: Articles of Confederation adopted:
After 16 months of debate, the Continental Congress, sitting in its temporary capital of York, Pennsylvania, agrees to adopt the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union on this day in 1777. Not until March 1, 1781, would the last of the 13 states, Maryland, ratify the agreement.
George Washington: To William Heath,:
Head Quarters, November 13, 1777.
Dear Sir: In my Letter of the 5th. in answer to yours of the 22d. Ulto. I mentioned, that it was not our interest to expedite the passage of the prisoners to England.
John F. Kennedy: Crosscup-Pishon American Legion Post:
Our foreign policy today may well determine the kind of life we will live here for generations. For the peace and prosperity of this country are truly indivisible from the peace and prosperity of the world in this atomic age.
Shawnee leader Cornstalk was murdered while being held in captivity at Point Pleasant on November 10, 1777. He’d spent a lifetime fighting white settlers and the British Army in the vicinity of present West Virginia.
Eleanor Roosevelt: My Day:
HYDE PARK, Tuesday—This is election day, the day on which we exercise our free right in the choice of our representatives as citizens of the United States. My husband always said that no people could be enslaved who kept their secret ballot. I have always had a mental reservation, however, since we have to use it as independent, thinking citizens, responsible for our own actions, if we wish to remain free.
Pooja Nair: Hamilton and Gates:
In November 1777, a month before the planned moved to the Valley Forge encampment, Washington sent Hamilton on a sensitive diplomatic mission to General Horatio Gates. Washington wanted Hamilton to borrow a ‘sizable body of troops’ for an attack upon British forces in New York or Philadelphia. Washington trusted Hamilton’s discretion and gave his young aide a tremendous amount of power. Washington gave a letter to Hamilton to show Gates, which laid out ‘the absolute necessity that there is for [Gates] detaching a very considerable part of the army at present under [Gates’s] command.’
Harry S. Truman: To Bess Wallace, November 4, 1915:
En route to Fort Worth, Tex. Nov. 4, 1915
Since I forgot my fountain pen I suppose a pencil will have to do. I have taken another sudden notion to go to Texas. There is some chance of my making something this time though. If one of the men buys, I am to get a hundred dollars. You should hear me talk Texas land. I am almost an expert salesman by this time. We are now in the center of Oklahoma going south at sixty miles an hour. If nothing breaks we'll arrive in Ft. Worth at 8:05 p.m. I am hoping for the best. The Birth of a Nation I suppose will keep another week. I was hoping you'd consent to go about Thursday. I shall be home next Wednesday and hope to see you that evening—if you are home.
Alexander Hamilton: To Robert Morris, [30 April 1781]:
This calculation supposes the ability of these states for revenue to continue the same as they now are, which is a supposition both false and unfavorable. Speaking within moderate bounds our population will be doubled in thirty years; there will be a confluence of emigrants from all parts of the world; our commerce will have a proportionable progress, and of course our wealth and capacity for revenue.
Wikipedia: Third Battle of the Isonzo:
Casualties and losses: Italy: 67,100 (11,000 dead); Austria-Hungary 40,400(9,000 dead). The Third Battle of the Isonzo was fought from October 18 through November 3 of 1915 between the armies of Italy and Austria-Hungary. After roughly two and a half months of reprieve to recuperate from the casualties incurred from frontal assaults from the First and Second Battle of the Isonzo, Luigi Cadorna, Italian commander-in-chief, understood that artillery played a fundamental role on the front and brought the total number to 1,200 pieces.
History.com: John Paul Jones Sets Sail:
he USS Ranger, with a crew of 140 men under the command of John Paul Jones, leaves Portsmouth, New Hampshire, for the naval port at Brest, France, where it will stop before heading toward the Irish Sea to begin raids on British warships. This was the first mission of its kind during the Revolutionary War.
Continental Congress: Thanksgiving Proclamation:
Forasmuch as it is the indispensable duty of all men to adore the superintending providence of Almighty God; to acknowledge with gratitude their obligation to him for benefits received, and to implore such farther blessings as they stand in need of; and it having pleased him in his abundant mercy not only to continue to us the innumerable bounties of his common providence, but also smile upon us in the prosecution of a just and necessary war, for the defense and establishment of our unalienable rights and liberties; particularly in that he hath been pleased in so great a measure to prosper the means used for the support of our troops and to crown our arms with most signal success:
George Washington: To Horatio Gates, October 30, 1777: "George Washington to Horatio Gates, October 30, 1777
Near White Marsh,
15 Miles from Philadelphia,
October 30, 1777
Sir: By this Opportunity, I do myself the pleasure to congratulate you on the signal success of the Army under your command, in compelling Genl. Burgoyne and his whole force, to surrender themselves prisoners of War. An Event that does the highest honor to the American Arms, and which, I hope, will be attended with the most extensive and happy consequences.
Katherine Fite: To Mr. and Mrs. Emerson Fite:
Dearest Mother and Father,
Alea iacta est.
As my detail expires Nov. 13, I went to see the Justice himself Friday and said I would like to stay on. He said I should and asked me to draft a cable for his signature suggesting the extension of the detail for the duration of the trial or until further instructions. So I suppose it's gone by now. And we have only to see what the reply will be. I rather think it will be yes, O.K. which means Christmas here certainly. Mr. Hackworth said when he was being so difficult--now, remember, you're coming home at the end of four months, even if they ask you to stay. So I'm taking a bit of a gamble.
Robert Farley: The Most Horrific War of All Time: Russia vs. Germany:
The raw statistics of the war are nothing short of stunning. On the Soviet side, some seven million soldiers died in action, with another 3.6 million dying in German POW camps. The Germans lost four million soldiers in action, and another 370000 to the Soviet camp system. Some 600000 soldiers from other participants (mostly Eastern European) died as well. These numbers do not include soldiers lost on either side of the German-Polish War, or the Russo-Finnish War.... Around 15 million Soviet civilians are thought to have been killed. Some three million ethnic Poles died (some before the German invasion of the Soviet Union, but many after) along with around three million Jews of Polish and another two million of Soviet citizenship (included in the Soviet statistics). Somewhere between 500000 and 2 million German civilians died in the expulsions that followed the war.
K.S.B. Keats-Rohan: The Genesis of the Honour of Wallingford:
From a twelfth-century perspective, the honour of Wallingford appears to be a typical Norman institution. However, a re-examination of its constituent parts indicates that through marriage it was largely derived from the lands of Wigod of Wallingford and his family. Wigod appears to have been one of Edward the Confessor’s stallers and the estates that he held were what was effectively a pre-conquest ‘castlery’ with origins in a period before the formation of the county of Berkshire. Throughout its history the honour was to remain under the tight control of the crown, reflecting its strategic role in the defence of the middle Thames valley.
WHEREAS the Charter of the United Nations, with the Statute of the International Court of Justice annexed thereto, was formulated at the United Nations Conference on International Organization and was signed in San Francisco on June 26,1945 by the Plenipotentiaries of the United States of America and the respective Plenipotentiaries of forty-nine other Governments, and was signed in Washington on October 15,1945 by the Plenipotentiary of one other Government, the original of which Charter, with annexed Statute, in the Chinese, French, Russian, English, and Spanish languages, as certified by the Department of State of the United States of America, is word for word as follows....
Eleanor Roosevelt, : My Day:
All over our country we destroy old historic buildings when we should preserve them, and here in New York City I understand that the war is on again between our very efficient Park Commissioner, Robert Moses, and such people in the city as really care about preserving old landmarks. The issue this time is Fort Clinton, which was designed by John McComb, the architect of our City Hall
Eleanor Roosevelt: My Day:
The other evening I finished reading Henry Morgenthau, Junior's book, 'Germany Is Our Problem.' The facts in this book are carefully checked. It is not written with any hate of the German people, but with the purpose of making it clear to us that this land which lies in the center of Europe must not be allowed to start another war. I think it is the best answer to some of the industrialists, both in Great Britain and here, who think more of their pockets than they do of world safety. Listening to them, one would think that Russia had been our enemy, and not Germany—so vocal are those who fear Russia's potential power and who therefore want to rebuild Germany's industrial strength. They forget, I think, that this power has never yet been used by Russia to bring about a world war. That cannot be said of Germany.
INDICTMENT: INTERNATIONAL MILITARY TRIBUNAL THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THE FRENCH REPUBLIC, THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, AND THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS
HERMANN WILHELM GOERING, RUDOLF HESS, JOACHIM VON RIBBENTROP, ROBERT LEY, WILHELM KEITEL, ERNST KALTENBRUNNER, ALFRED ROSENBERG, HANS FRANK, WILHELM FRICK, JULIUS STREICHER, WALTER FUNK, HJALMAR SCHACHT, GUSTAV KRUPP VON BOHLEN UND HALBACH, KARL Doenitz, ERICH RAEDER, BALDUR VON SCHIRACH, FRITZ SAUCKEL, ALFRED JODL, MARTIN BORMANN, FRANZ VON PAPEN, ARTHUR SEYSS-INQUART, ALBERT SPEER, CONSTANTIN VON NEURATH, and HANS FRITZSCHE, Individually and as Members of Any of the Following Groups or Organizations to which They Respectively Belonged, Namely: DIE REICHS REGIERUNG (REICH CABINET); DAS KORPS DER POLITISCHEN LEITER DER NATIONALSOZIALISTISCHEN DEUTSCHEN ARBEITERPARTEI (LEADERSHIP CORPS OF THE NAZI PARTY); DIE SCHUTZSTAFFELN DER NATIONALSOZIALISTISCHEN DEUTSCHEN ARBEITERPARTEI (commonly known as the 'SS') and including DER SICHERHEITSDIENST (commonly known as the 'SD'); DIE GEHEIME STAATSPOLIZEI (SECRET STATE POLICE, commonly known as the 'GESTAPO'); DIE STURM ABTEILUNGEN DER NSDAP (commonly known as the 'SA'); and the GENERAL STAFF and HIGH COMMAND of the GERMAN ARMED FORCES, all as defined in Appendix B, Defendants.
George Washignton: GGeneral Orders, October 18, 1777:
Head Quarters, at Wentz's, Worcester Township, October 18, 1777. Parole: Reading. Countersigns: Rochester, Ridgefield.
Armenian Genocide: Timeline: 1915:
Immunity from prosecution is guaranteed to those carrying out the massacres of the Armenians in Der-el-Zor. 16,000 Armenian deportees from Bursa and Izmid leave Afiyon-Karahisar for Konia. Lord Bryce remarks that Germany could stop the massacres if it wished to do so.20,000 Armenian deportees in transit are murdered in the city and environs of Urfa.
History.com: Vichy leader executed for treason:
Pierre Laval, the puppet leader of Nazi-occupied Vichy France, is executed by firing squad for treason against France.
Dominic Selwood : The true story of the Battle of Hastings:
On the 13th of October... [Harold the Usurper's] army of around 7,000 pitched camp on the ridge of Senlac Hill, south of Wealden Forest, around 10 miles north-west of Hastings. The stage was set. As the sun rose on the 14th of October, William moved out to meet Harold. He had his archers in front, his infantry behind, and three divisions of cavalry bringing up the rear. The men were a mix of Norman, Breton, Flemish, and French, with a significant number of mercenaries and adventurers.