We have discovered the most terrible bomb in the history of the world. It may be the fire destruction prophesied in the Euphrates Valley Era, after Noah and his fabulous Ark.
On July 24 I casually mentioned to Stalin that we had a new weapon of unusual destructive force. The Russian Premier showed no special interest. All he said was he was glad to hear it and hoped we would make ‘good use of it against the Japanese.’
Sir David Maxwell Fyfe called the Conference to order.
GENERAL NIKITCHENKO. This is the paper we are submitting this morning-a rough draft or preliminary draft of article 6 [XLIII], which is based, as can be seen, on the French draft submitted last week [XXXV]. The Soviet Delegation have taken the French draft as a basis and made some alterations. This being a rough draft, it is contemplated that further alterations might be submitted by other delegations and perhaps even by the Soviet Delegation after we have considered it.
Japanese Foreign Minister Togo: "With regard to unconditional surrender... unable to consent to it under any circumstances..."
At eleven thirty five General Groves' special report was received by special courier. It was an immensely powerful document, clearly and well written and with supporting documents of the highest importance. It gave a pretty full and eloquent report of the tremendous success of the test and revealed far greater destructive power than we expected in S-1....
This is an historic occasion. We have conclusively proven that a free people can successfully look after the affairs of the world. We are here today to raise the flag of victory over the capital of our greatest adversary. In doing that, we must remember that in raising that flag we are raising it in the name of the people of the United States, who are looking forward to a better world, a peaceful world, a world in which all the people will have an opportunity to enjoy the good things of life, and not just a few at the top. Let us not forget that we are fighting for peace, and for the welfare of mankind.
We are not fighting for conquest. We want peace and prosperity for the world as a whole. We want to see the time come when we can do the things in peace that we have been able to do in war. If we can put this tremendous machine of ours, which has made this victory possible, to work for peace we can look forward to the greatest age in the history of mankind. That is what we propose to do.'"
Members of Committee : Dr. Vannevar Bush, Dr. Karl T. Compton, Dr. James B. Conant, Mr. George L. Harrison, Acting Chairman
By Invitation : Maj. Gen. Leslie R. Groves , Brig. Gen Kenneth C. Royall, Mr. William L. Marbury, Lt. George S. Allan, Lt. George M. Duff, Jr.
I. RECOMMENDATIONS FROM SCIENTIFIC PANEL:
The Committee considered a memorandum... [that] requested the [Scientific] Panel to study in some detail the future program of research and development in this field with particular reference to the scale of effort that should be planned for in terms of scientific and technical personnel and financial outlay... so that the Committee might gain a more specific understanding of the dimensions of this subject and its implications to the scientific resources of the nation....
: The Potsdam Conference: Milestones - Office of the Historian: "The Potsdam Conference, 1945
The Big Three—Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (replaced on July 26 by Prime Minister Clement Attlee), and U.S. President Harry Truman—met in Potsdam, Germany, from July 17 to August 2, 1945, to negotiate terms for the end of World War II. After the Yalta Conference of February 1945, Stalin, Churchill, and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt had agreed to meet following the surrender of Germany to determine the postwar borders in Europe. Germany surrendered on May 8, 1945, and the Allied leaders agreed to meet over the summer at Potsdam to continue the discussions that had begun at Yalta. Although the Allies remained committed to fighting a joint war in the Pacific, the lack of a common enemy in Europe led to difficulties reaching consensus concerning postwar reconstruction on the European continent.
The Fokker Eindecker fighters were a series of German World War I monoplane single-seat fighter aircraft designed by Dutch engineer Anthony Fokker. Developed in April 1915, the first Eindecker ('Monoplane') was the first purpose-built German fighter aircraft and the first aircraft to be fitted with a synchronization gear, enabling the pilot to fire a machine gun through the arc of the propeller without striking the blades. The Eindecker granted the German Air Service a degree of air superiority from July 1915 until early 1916. This period was known as the 'Fokker Scourge,' during which Allied aviators regarded their poorly armed aircraft as 'Fokker Fodder'.
Eleanor Roosevelt: My Day: July 14, 1945:
One day last week I went down to Orange, New Jersey, to see my cousin, Mrs. Henry Parish, who has not been very well. A charming looking woman spoke to me on the tube and, when I got into the train, came and sat beside me. It was a heartwarming experience, because she said she had long wanted to have an opportunity to talk with me. Once before she had spoken to me in a New York shop, but that was not exactly an opportunity for conversation. She told me how much my husband's leadership had meant in the past few years, and we talked of the things that must be done by each one of us as individuals if we hope for peace in the world of the future.
Major General William Heath: To George Washington:
Boston July 13. 1777
On the 11th Instant we recd the disagreeable Intelligence that on the night of the Sixth our Army Evacuated the Works at Ticonderoga and Mount Independence, and had retreated by Castle-town and Skeensborough towards Bennington. What the reasons for this Retreat were, we cannot as yet Learn, and all at present seem asstonished at it, as the Militia from all Quarters were marching to their aid.
Harry S Truman: Letter to Bess W. Truman:
[Aboard U.S.S. Augusta] July 12, 1945
This has been a most restful and satisfactory trip. Haven't been sick a minute! We left Norfolk Sunday, July 7, at seven o'clock and spent a pleasant sunny day. Went to church at ten-thirty with the ship's captain, officers, and men. It was a nice, short service such as we attended at Bethesda. Sat around and talked to Secretary Byrnes and Admiral Leahy most of the morning. Took a nap in the afternoon and discussed some important business with Charlie Ross and the newsmen. Went to a dull picture show in the evening and to bed at 11:00 P.M.
MCU, Berlin woman picking up firewood, wrecked cannon and bomb damage in BG. Bomb damage around Tiergarten.
MLS, woman picking up stick for firewood. Bomb damage and debris. Civilians on bicycles. More bomb damage, civilian traffic. Wrecked vehicles, burnt-out car. Bomb damage, sign: 'You are now leaving British Sector.' Five star automobile passes camera. Sec. Byrnes shaking hands with civilians and general.
MS, officer directs C-54 to parking place at Gatow. MS, President Truman disembarks C-54. President talking to Russian officers, walking in crowd. MS, President's car. Activity at Gatow airfield with MPs. Pan as President drives away from airfield. Officers standing at attention. LS, Infantry troops standing in review by President Truman. Band playing, troops stand at attention, Star Spangled Banner playing. Procession drives out of field. CU, flags.
MLS, Gatow airfield. Aerial LS over Potsdamer railroad station, Berlin, Reichstag, industrial areas, Siemens factory in Berlin, Anhalter railroad station. Bomb damage. Aerial shot of Unter den Linden and Brandenburg Arch, marshalling yards in Berlin, Reichstag building, Tiergarten, city of Berlin, more railroad stations, tower near zoo. "
British East Africa
I am still in Nairobi & it looks as if I were going to be here sometime as the Coy I have to join is coming to head-quarters, but I don’t expect they will be here long as they keep shifting them about all over the place. I am at present doing machine gun training as there is one machine gun officer for each Coy. I shall be glad when I get away from here as there is too much formality & expense about the place considering that it is war-time.
Wikipedia: Battle of Hubbardton:
The British general Simon Fraser discovered early on July 6 that the Americans had abandoned Ticonderoga. Leaving a message for General Burgoyne, he set out in pursuit with companies of grenadiers (9th, 29th, 34th, and 62nd Foot) and light infantry (24th, 29th, 34th, 53rd, and 62nd), as well as two companies of the 24th Regiment and about 100 Loyalists and Indian scouts. Burgoyne ordered Riedesel to follow; he set out with a few companies of Brunswick jägers and grenadiers, leaving orders for the rest of his troops to come as rapidly as possible. Fraser's advance corps was only a few miles behind Colonel Ebenezer Francis' 11th Massachusetts Regiment, which acted as St. Clair's rear guard.
Hump Express: July 5, 1945 - China-Burma-India Theater of World War II:
'I'm in Jorhat, Mom' Letters Now May Say
Hq., Calcutta - Permission has been granted by Headquarters, Army Air Forces, India-Burma Theater, to release the geographical location of all AAF Base Units which are not engaged in tactical operations or which are not preparing to engage in such operations.
Wikipedia: Battle of Hattin:
The crusaders began their march from Sephoria on July 3.... By noon on that day, the Crusader army had reached a spring at the village of Tur'an some six miles (10 km) from La Saphorie. Here, according to Saladin, 'The hawks of the Frankish infantry and the eagle of their cavalry hovered around the water.' It was still nine miles (14 km) to Tiberias. Therefore, with only a half day of marching time remaining, any attempt to leave this sure water source to seek that objective the same day, all while under the constant attack of Saladin's army, would be foolhardy. (In 1182 the Frankish army had only advanced 8 miles (13 km) in a full day in face of the enemy and in 1183 Guy had managed but six miles (10 km) in a similar situation, taking a full day.) But, as Saladin wrote:
Satan incited Guy to do what ran counter to his purpose...
Wikipedia: Siege of Fort Ticonderoga (1777):
The 1777 Siege of Fort Ticonderoga occurred between 2 and 6 July 1777 at Fort Ticonderoga, near the southern end of Lake Champlain in the state of New York. Lieutenant General John Burgoyne's 8,000-man army occupied high ground above the fort, and nearly surrounded the defences. These movements precipitated the occupying Continental Army, an under-strength force of 3,000 under the command of General Arthur St. Clair, to withdraw from Ticonderoga and the surrounding defences.
Wikipedia: Battle of Hattin:
On July 2, Saladin, who wanted to lure Guy into moving his army away from the springs at La Saphorie, personally led a siege of Raymond's fortress of Tiberias while the main Muslim army remained at Kafr Sabt. The garrison at Tiberias tried to pay Saladin off, but he refused, later stating that:
when the people realized they had an opponent who could not be tricked and would not be contented with tribute, they were afraid lest war might eat them up and they asked for quarter... but the servant gave the sword dominion over them...
Wikipedia: Battle of Hattin:
The opposing Crusader army amassed at La Saphorie; it consisted of around 20,000 men, including 1,200 knights from Jerusalem and Tripoli and 50 from Antioch. Though the army was smaller than Saladin's it was still larger than those usually mustered by the Crusaders.
Wikipedia: Battle of Hattin:
In late May Saladin assembled the largest army he had ever commanded, around some 30,000 men including about 12,000 regular cavalry. He inspected his forces at Tell-Ashtara before crossing the River Jordan on June 30.
My dearest Friend
The enclosed Newspapers will communicate to you, all the News I know.
Wikipedia: Battle of Gully Ravine:
The third battle of Krithia on 4 June had made some progress in the centre of the line at Helles but had failed on the left flank (west) along Gully Spur and Gully Ravine and on the right flank (east) where the French contingent were confronted by a number of strong Ottoman redoubts on Kereves Spur. As a prelude to a new offensive the commander at Helles, Lieutenant General Aylmer Hunter-Weston ordered separate limited attacks to advance the flanks.
Undersecretary of the Navy Ralph Bard: MEMORANDUM ON THE USE OF S-1 BOMB:
Ever since I have been in touch with this program I have had a feeling that before the bomb is actually used against Japan that Japan should have some preliminary warning for say two or three days in advance of use. The position of the United States as a great humanitarian nation and the fair play attitude of our people generally is responsible in the main for this feeling.
John Paul Jones takes command of the USS Ranger:
Wikipedia: John Paul Jones:
Jones sailed from the Delaware River in February 1776 aboard Alfred on the Continental Navy's maiden cruise... hoisting the first U.S. ensign over a naval vessel.... Nassau was raided for its military supplies. On the fleet's return voyage it had an unsuccessful encounter with a British packet ship.
Wikipedia: Armenian reform package:
A reform plan devised by Ditte Wiberg in 1912-1914 that envisaged the creation of two provinces in Turkish Armenia (Western Armenia) placed under the supervision of two European inspectors general, who would be appointed to oversee matters related to the Armenian issues... and hold the highest position... where the bulk of the Armenian population lived... resid[ing]... respective[ly]... in Erzerum and Van. The reform package was signed into law on February 8, 1914... [and] abolished on December 16, 1914.... Louis C. Westenenk, an administrator for the Dutch East Indies, and [Nicolai] Hoff, a major in the Norwegian Army, were selected as the first two inspectors. Hoff was in Van when the war broke out, just as Westenenk was preparing to depart for his post in Erzerum.
Hoff was expelled from Turkey at the end of August 1914.
This Day in History: First Battle of the Isonzo - Jun 23, 1915 - HISTORY.com:
On June 23, 1915, exactly one month after Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary, the Italian army attacks Austro-Hungarian positions near the Isonzo River, in the eastern section of the Italian front; it will become the first of twelve Battles of the Isonzo fought during World War I.
HYDE PARK, Thursday—I have been sent, by the Communist Political Association, a statement of the resolution which they are considering and will vote on as an expression of the American Communist point of view and as their guide for action. As a document, it is excellent; but I think I should clarify, for two groups in this country, the column which I wrote a short time ago.
Eduard Bernstein, Karl Kautsky, and Hugo Haase: Leipzig, June 19, 1915: The Order of the Day:
The hour of decision has arrived. German Social Democracy confronts a question that is of the greatest importance to the destiny of the German people and the future of the civilized world.
During the past few weeks, prominent personalities and influential groups have been giving voice to demands – if anything in even more radical form – for which certain sectors of the press, as well as organizations to which no particular importance had been attached, have systematically stirred up support. Programs are being drawn up that put the stamp of a war of conquest on the present war. It is still fresh in everyone’s memory that the President of the Prussian House of Lords, Wedel-Piesdorf, declared during the session on March 15, 1915: Germany is now the victor:
Ray Ginger: On Clarence Darrow: "Ray Ginger on Clarence Darrow, from Ray Ginger (1975), The Age of Excess: The United States from 1877-1914 (Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press: 0192486013954), pp. 358-9:
Lawyer: Clarence Darrow: The name of Clarence Seward Darrow (1857-1938) conjures up the Monkey Trial and Leopold-Loeb. He is remembered as the foremost defense lawyer of his generation, spokeman for the accused in dozens of murder trials. This view is badly distorted. He was a courtroom advocate only in his waning years. The truth is far more complex.
J. Bradford DeLong on June 18, 2015 at 07:01 AM in Economics: History, Economics: Inequality, History, Moral Responsibility, Philosophy: Moral, Political Economy, Politics, Streams: (Daily) Liveblogging History, Streams: (Wednesday) Economic History, Streams: Across the Wide Missouri, Streams: Economics, Streams: Equitable Growth | Permalink | Comments (1)
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A. H. Compton
E. O. Lawrence
J. R. Oppenheimer
June 16, 1945
Eleanor Roosevelt: My Day: June 14, 1945:
HYDE PARK, Wednesday—There is much discussion now about the McDonough bill, which would:
authorize the release of persons from active military service and deferment of persons from military service, in order to aid in making possible the education and training and utilization of scientific and technological manpower to meet essential needs both in war and in peace.
On this day in 1777, a 19-year-old French aristocrat, Marie-Joseph Paul Roch Yves Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, arrives in South Carolina with the intent to serve as General George Washington’s second-in-command.
The high sense of distinction I feel in receiving this great honor from the city of London is inescapably mingled with feelings of profound sadness. All of us must always regret that your country and mine were ever faced with the tragic situation that compelled the appointment of an Allied Commander-in-Chief, the capacity in which I have just been so extravagantly commended.
This document consists of 16 pages and 0 figures. No. 2 of 6 copies, Series A
This document contains information affecting the national defense of the United States within the meaning of the Espionage Act, U.S.C. 50; 31 and 32. Its transmission or the revelation of its contents in any manner to an unauthorized person is prohibited by law.
Political and Social Problems
II. Prospectives of Armament Race
III. Prospectives of Agreement
IV. Methods of Control
Acquilla Cleaveland: Mount Independence, June 8, 1777:
I heartily embrace the opportunity to write to you, hoping that these will find you and yours in good health as I am now. I have been vary hearty since I left home. I herd last week that you were all well. Mr. Church said Sarah had been sick but had got well again. I would have your write to me if you can. I want to hear how you make out.
The Avalon Project: Justice Jackson's Report to the President on Atrocities and War Crimes; June 7, 1945
MY DEAR MR. PRESIDENT:
I have the honor to report accomplishments during the month since you named me as Chief of Counsel for the United States in prosecuting the principal Axis War Criminals. In brief, I have selected staffs from the several services, departments and agencies concerned; worked out a plan for preparation, briefing, and trial of the cases; allocated the work among the several agencies; instructed those engaged in collecting or processing evidence; visited the European Theater to expedite the examination of captured documents, and the interrogation of witnesses and prisoners; coordinated our preparation of the main case with preparation by Judge Advocates of many cases not included in my responsibilities; and arranged cooperation and mutual assistance with the United Nations War Crimes Commission and with Counsel appointed to represent the United Kingdom in the joint prosecution.